Wish to Share some mistakes/suggestions that can be taken care of during construction.
1) Always try to use PPC cement over OPC as the PPC grade has better life, water resistance and low heat of hydration. (avoids shrinkage cracks).
Though the curing time is more, the benefits are far rewarding. Do not go by brands but use any famous brand and correct grades.
2) Do use waterproofing admixture for sunken slabs, top most moulding, terrace screed, sump tank, balconies. Use it for both concrete and plastering.
Two step waterproofing is needed in bathrooms, sump and suggested in exterior staircase/landings, balconies.
i) First during concreting use admixure.
ii) before tiling, plaster like sump tank and provide flow pipe in bathrooms for seepage water (smooth cement finish with admixture) and carry on tile fixing over the waterproofed slab.
3) Place the bathroom/kitchen windows at 1.5 inches above the built wall face (if window needs to be in interior face in case of wooden windows). After rough plastering, the window would be 1 inch above wall face. Ask the tile layer to match the window face height for that particular wall. This avoids ugly grout over full window.
4) Plan for elevation in advance during foundation itself to provide necessary support, slab and openings for elevation design.
5) You can chop off bottom of internal door frames exactly at tiling level or make grooves in frame and insert tile under to avoid having ugly tile joints/grout near door frames.
6) Use good brand steel as this is the main aid for structural support. Tempered rods are very dangerous and may result in building collapse. Spend for good steel than for cement.
7) Spend on practicality of building and interiors rather than just exterior elevation. Most judge buildings by their exterior appearance and interiors would be a decades old. If budget permits then there is no end for beautification
8) Do not believe what your mason say. They would sometimes become architect/civil engineer and ask you to reduce rods or increase rods. Consult your engineer before doing any changes.
9) Do not use heavy rods like 16mm,20mm or 25mm for sarjah's thinking it would provide strength. It depends on the concrete thickness, lapping, grade, spacing and so many other factors. Rods should always have proper covering and spacing for optimum concrete strength.
10) In small buildings it is always better to build walls parallel to structure as the lintel and beams are tightly packed to the walls. The walls would also have less chances of cracking to stresses induced during construction.
11) Take special care of walls during centering for lintels and provide good curing before commencing lintel work. Immediate commencement would induce cracks in walls that are unsupported at top. You may see cracks later near door frame and window frame top corners.
12) Always use mesh to join structure and walls before plastering to avoid shrinkage cracks (use only ppc grade cement).
13) Provide as many door clamps possible to tightly fix the frame to wall (4 is minimum). Kids would slam the doors or play and sudden stresses can cause cracks in plastering.
14) Do not build parapet walls on non-cantilevered balconies, wall joints may crack and Using grill work would be good.
15) Always lay a layer of reinforced (may be single or two 8mm rods) concrete on top of compound and parapet wall to avoid cracks on them.
16) Allow plastering to cure for a month before carrying paint work.
17) Provide as many wall junction boxes as you need for future. You may or may not run wires but laying pipes later after painting is not possible without loss.
18) Spend a little more on Multi-type (like in computer spike) wall sockets otherwise you need to run for adapters for different types of pin.
19) If you have a lot of buffer time before project, procure wood and season it.
20) Use BWP plywood/waterproof for bathroom doors. You can even have Frame from BWP board fixed to wall opening.
21) If you need slight reinforcement from wall or concrete, you can drill a small hole may be 10mm, use a tube level to blow air inside to clean the hole, use fosroc lokfix to fix 8mm rods into the holes. This is for mild reinforcements and not for structures.
I could think of the above few, but there are many other challenges which makes you think and innovate.
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